There is very little
known about this Roman General, Indeed according to Burton "The
meagreness of all ancient
record, of the achievements of Lollius Urbicus is worthy of emphatic
mention and recollection, because his name has got into the ordinary
abridged histories which speak of it, and of 'his campaign in
the north', as well-known events, of which people naturally expect
fuller information elsewhere. The usual sources for reference
regarding him will however be found utterly dumb."
only certain piece of information is that Lollius Urbicus was
given the task
of linking the forts established by Agricola in 80 AD between
the Forth and the Clyde by building Antonine Wall. This was mainly
built by the II, IX & XII Legions, but undoubtedly they utilised
a considerable amount of slave labour.
has also been claimed that a Roman Province named Vespasiana
was also established
by Lollius Urbicus. The Province was said to have comprised of
the land between the Forth & Clyde and the Moray Firth. There
is of course several Roman Forts within this vast area of ground,
but there is very little evidence to link them with any northern
expeditions made by General Quintus
From what records
there are it seems very unlikely that by 140 AD the Romans wanted
to establish any colony further north than Antonine Wall. Indeed
the Romans found the Caledonians so troublesome that Antonine
Wall had been temporarily abandoned in 154-5 before finally being
abandoned in 161 AD.
To examine this
unlikely claim it is perhaps worth scrutinizing what happened
between 80 AD and 139 AD when work on Antonine Wall commenced.
It is however clear
that after the Governor of the Province of Brittania, Gnaeus
Julius Agricola, came to Caledonia in A.D. 80 he reached the
River Tay with an army of about 20,000 men. He built a string
of forts between the Rivers Forth & Clyde, while being supplied
by the Roman fleet, to keep out the northern tribesmen. At Inchtuthil
on the river Tay the IX Legion built Pinnata Castra: described
as a “great fortified camp”. Agricola was recalled to Rome, but
returned three years later to conquer Morayshire and Galloway.
Having strengthened his armies with British auxiliaries from the
south Agricola returned in the summer of 84 AD intent on conquering
Northern Caledonia. At a place, which Tacitus calls Mons Grampius, near
the Fort of Ardoch the Caledonian army, amounting to some 30,000
men, under the command of Galgacus was sited. Numbering 20,000
to 30,000 the Roman Army consisted of 8,000 British Auxiliary
Infantry, occupying the centre, the wings consisting of 3,000
horse. The Roman Legions mainly consisted of Romanians, better
suited to the climate, and not Romans, but nevertheless they were
situated to the rear as a reserve to remain inactive unless specifically
required to take part, in order to avoid spilling “Roman” blood.
After the battle
of Mons Grampius, which Archaeologists believe to be in the north-east
near Raedykes, the Roman fleet went sailed north to Orkney, Fair
Isle, the Western Isles through the British channel and back to
the River Forth and Tay to investigate the topography of the British
Isles and for the first time proving Britain to be an island
Within a year of
the Roman victory at Mons Grampius the 53 acre fort at Inchtuthil,
which was to be the centre of the Province of Vespasiana, was
abandoned and the Roman Army fell back using the natural barrier
of the River earn as their front line.
Some 30 years passed
until 114 AD when the Caledonian without warning attacked the
IX Legion forts killing many of the unprepared soldiers and scattering
the rest. Without leadership the Romans tried to make their way
south, but within a week all were killed. Four years later in
118 AD a new Roman IX Legion marched north, but no trace of them
or their equipment has ever been found.
It is therefore
highly implausible that any attempt would have been made by General Quintus Lollius Urbicus to
march north to conquer the Caledonian tribes. Forts were however
built north of the Antonine Wall, such as at Duntocher in the
west and Bertha on the Earn at the eastern edge, to protect its
the fact that there were several Roman Forts in the area of
what is now
Bo’ness means that there would almost certainly have been a large
local indigenous community living in and farming the area. There
would most probably be a port in the local area and another at
Cramond where one can speculate that merchants would barter for
goods, slaves would be sold, soldiers and Tribunes would travel
back and forward to England and Europe.
was once speculated that Bridgness was at the most eastern end
of Antonine Wall because
an elaborately decorated Roman tablet, measuring 9 feet two inches
long by three feet eleven inches high, was found there in 1868. The
nature of the inscription on the tablet may indicate that Antonine
Wall started at Bridgeness instead of terminating there. The Augustan
or Second Legion responsible for building this “first section” of
Antonine Wall (Wall of 139 completed in 142 AD) completed 4652
passus of wall or Vallum. Since the Roman pace of two steps was
4.84 feet the extent of their portion of wall was four miles 465
yards. This is the distance from Bridgeness to Inveravon on the
Avon where one might expect to find the matching tablet since
one would almost undoubtedly have been erected at each end of
the Augustan section of the Wall. Whether Antonine Wall ended
or started at Bridgness or Carriden it is almost certain that
the military way would have continued eastward to reach Edinburgh.
Serf (St Servanus) reached the
south shore of the Forth (where Bo’ Ness is now) and on seeing
a sunbeam light up the Ochil Hills on the opposite side took
this as a good omen and founded St Serfs Monastery on the north
bank of the Forth (Culross Abbey was built on land gifted
by Malcolm, 7th Earl of Fife, in 1217, during the reign of Alexander
II). Another version is that St. Serf, standing at Kinneil,
threw his staff over the Forth. It landed in Culross and blossomed
and as a result the Saint founded a monastery. St. Serf arrived
at Culross around 520AD as the first Christian missionary to
this wild untamed area. Brude, a Pictish king, sent men to slay
St. Serf and his followers. The saint’s life was spared when
a sudden illness overtook the king and St. Serf cured him. The
king was converted to Christianity and allowed St. Serf and
his followers to live in peace.
Bede or *Baeda, St
the Venerable Bede)
(b. 673, d. 735)
Although I would speculate
that a village at Kinneil dates back to at least the time of the
building of Antonine Wall and the Roman occupation of the area,
we can be sure that it existed by the 8th Century.
This is because the Venerable Bede mentions Kinneil in the
8th Century; "called in the Pictish language Peanfahel
but in the English tongue Pennulton".
scholar, theologian, and historian, born near Monkwearmouth, Durham,
NE England. At the age of seven he was placed in the care of Benedict
Biscop at St Peter’s monastery at Wearmouth, and in 682 at the
age of thirteen he moved to the new monastery of Jarrow in Durham,
where he was ordained priest in 703 and remained a monk for the
rest of his life, studying and teaching. His devotion to Church
discipline was exemplary and his industry enormous. He wrote homilies,
lives of saints, lives of abbots, hymns, epigrams, works on chronology,
grammar and physical science, and commentaries on the Old and
New Testaments; and he translated the Gospel of St John into Anglo-Saxon
just before his death. His greatest work was his Latin Historia
ecclesiastica gentis anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English
People), which he finished in 731, and which is the single most
valuable source for early English history, earning him the title “Father
of English History”. Our fundamental measure of time the BC/AD
dating system, based on the birthdate of Christ, was popularised
by Bede. Bede was canonized in 1899; feast day 25 May.
William Di Vipont
Monks of Holyrood
Abbey, Edinburgh, were granted a tithe by William Di Vipont during
the reign of William the Lion (1165-1214) to dig a tenth of the
coal from his Carriden Estate, which was then carried to Holyrood
in panniers strapped to the backs of their horses; later it was
taken to Leith by sailing ship. The tithe was significant as it
first recorded the coal-mining or more correctly at the time the
digging of coal in Scotland. He also gave Holyrood “Karedyn Church”.
In 1291 monks from Dunfermline Abbey were also given the right
to dig coal from outcrops around Bo'ness.
Note: I would like to hear from any reader who could contribute
information on the above named character.
Gilbert Hamilton fought on the side of Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn
as one of
the seven Royal Knights or bodyguards and is even reported to
have slain the “Great Lieutenant of England”. In 1329 it was Sir
Gilbert Hamilton that gave the funeral oration at the burial
of King Robert the Bruce at Dunfermline Abbey. History is not
clear whether Kinneil Estate was given to Sir Gilbert or his son
Sir Walter, but the Hamilton family history seems to err on the
side of Sir Walter. However it is my belief that since Sir Gilbert
clearly outlived King Robert, was his bodyguard at Bannockburn
(while Sir Walter sided with King Edward) and was chosen to give
King Robert’s funeral oration I tend to think that Kinneil Estate
was gifted to Sir Gilbert Hamilton although it may be that some
paperwork was done afterwards officially giving ownership to Sir
is by: Thomas James Salmon
barony of Kinneil is one of their most ancient possessions, and is
associated with many interesting events in the
history of the family. According to “Ffrier Mark Hamiltonis Ristorie” King
Robert the Bruce gave all the lands of Kinneil to Sir Gilbert Hamilton “for
his trew service and greit manheid,” and especially for having slain “for
King Robertis pleasour the great lieutennand of Yngland upon Kynnale
Muir.” Sir Gilbert had been with the Bruce on the field of Bannockburn,
and was one of the seven knights that kept the King’s person. For
Sir Gilbert’s exploit upon Kynnale Muir, he tells us, “King Robert
gaif till him his armis till weir in Scotland thre sink fuilzies2 in.
ane bludy field.” in connection with the alleged “exploit” on the
muir, Mr. M’Kenzie has stated that in a place formerly
known as Kinneil Muir a remarkable stone lay near the road, which
was at one time used as a thoroughfare between Linlithgow and Falkirk
or Stirling. It was seven feet long, live feet broad, and three feet
thick. Its upper surface bad been roughly dressed, a groove had been
cut round the border with a cross in the centre. The stone had a monumental
appearance, but there was no vestige of tradition regarding it.The
only explanation that occurs is that it might have been meant to mark
the resting-place of “the great lieutennand of Yngland,” whoever that
worthy was. Early in the nineteenth century the stone, being an obstruction
to the plough, was blown to pieces and removed. But to return to “Schir
Gilbert.” We are told he persevered continuallv with Ring Robert “in
trew service on till ye end of his dayis, and was at his buriing in
ye Abbay of Dunfermling. He appears to have been “ane naturall oratour.” and
gave the funeral oration on that occasion.
have no desire to discredit the alluring narrative of the
learned “Ffrier” concerning
Sir Gilbert and his adventures at Bannockburn, and on Kinneil
Muir, but his statements do not accord with the information
given in Anderson’s “Memoirs of the House of Hamilton,” or
in the recent work of the Lyon King, Sir J. Balfour Paul.
It is recorded
that, in 1323, Walter Hamilton, the son of Sir
Gilbert Hamilton, was gifted Kinneil Estate by Robert the
Bruce, and although Hamilton House was the family's main seat,
their house at Kinneil became an important residence, conveniently
located for Edinburgh and the Royal Court. Walter fought on the
side of the English at Bannockburn, but changed allegiance after
the capture of Bothwell Castle, for which he was in charge of
the defence, by King Roberts's soldiers. Robert later knighted
is by: Thomas James Salmon
present Duke is the twenty-third possessor, and the first of the family
is given in both these authorities as
Walter Fitz-Gilbert (Walter son of Gilbert). He appears under that
designation in 1294 or thereabouts. Walter is reported to have sworn
fealty to King Edward 1. in 1296 at Berwick, and remained an English
partisan till the capture of Bothwell Castle by a detachment of the
Scottish army after Bannockburn. Quite evidently there was a Gilbert;
but it is difficult to believe that Walter, his son, should have been
on King Edward’s side at the time of Bannockburn whilst the father,
according to the “Ffrier” was with Bruce in that battle, and “am of
the seven knights that kept the King’s person.” This may have been
possible, but it does not seem very probable.
Walter is reported to
have joined the Bruce after his capture at Bothwell Castle, and
was knighted. Later, King Robert made him several grants of land,
and among those the lands of Kinneil. Sir Walter was twice married,
and the grant of Kinneil in 1323 was to him and Mary Gordon, his
second wife, and to his heirs by her.
(Aeneas Syluvious Piccolomini)
(b. 1405, d. 1446)
the age of 30 Aeneas Sylvius, the future Pope Pius II, visited
the area and wrote in
his journal "the poor, who almost in a state of nakedness begged
at the church door, depart with joy in their faces on receiving
stones as alms!" This account reveals that although coal was
commonly used as fuel in Scotland it was yet unknown in many parts
of Europe. This is reinforced as in another account of his visit
to Scotland the future Pope wrote, "A sulphurous stone dug
from the earth is used by the people as fuel." Although Aeneas
rode through the Lothian's it is not clear that he visited Carriden,
although as an area mined by the monks of Dunfermline and Holyrood
it is entirely possible. His voyage to Scotland in 1435 was not
without incident, he met with severe weather in the North Sea and
void that if spared he would walk from where he landed to the nearest
shrine of Our Lady. In this case he landed at Dunbar, at the mouth
of the Firth of Forth, and made a 10-mile pilgrimage through snow
and ice to the sanctuary of Whitekirk. In doing so he contracted
gout, which plagued him for the rest of his life. This visit also
indicated that he had not yet received Holy orders because of his
low moral standards and debauched life style. The record is unclear
about how long he stayed in Scotland, but it was certainly long
enough to make acquaintances and father an illegitimate child. That
he freely indulged his passions was endorsed by fathering a second
child while visiting Strasbourg.
The following is by: N.A. WEBER
Transcribed by Herman F. Holbrook Ubi Petrus, ibi Ecclesia.
Born at Corsignano, near Siena, 18 Oct.,
1405; elected 19 Aug., 1458; d. at Ancona, 14 Aug., 1464. He
was the eldest of eighteen children of Silvio de' Piccolomini
and Vittoria Forteguerra. Although of noble birth, straitened
circumstances forced him to help his father in the cultivation
of the estate which the family owned at Corsignano. This village
he later ranked as a town and made an episcopal residence with
the name of Pienza (Pius). Having received some elementary instruction
from a priest, he entered, at the age of eighteen, the University
of Siena. Here he gave himself up to diligent study and the
free enjoyment of sensual pleasures. In 1425 the preaching of
St. Bernardine of Siena kindled in him the desire of embracing
a monastic life, but he was dissuaded from his purpose by his
friends. Attracted by the fame of the celebrated Filelfo, he
shortly after spent two years in the study of the classics and
poetry at Florence. He returned to Siena at the urgent request
of his relatives, to devote his time to the study of jurisprudence.
Passing through Siena on his way to the Council of Basle (q.v.),
Capranica, Bishop of Fermo, invited Enea to accompany him as
his secretary. Bishop and secretary arrived there in 1432, and
joined the opposition to Pope Eugene IV.
soon left the service of the impecunious Capranica for more remunerative
employment with Nicodemo della Scala, Bishop of Freising, with
Bartolomeo, Bishop of Novara, and with Cardinal Albergati. He
accompanied the latter on several journeys, particularly to the
Congress of Arras, which in 1435 discussed peace between Burgundy
and France. In the same year his master sent him on a secret mission
to Scotland. The voyage was very tempestuous and Piccolomini vowed
to walk, if spared, barefoot from the port of arrival to the nearest
shrine of Our Lady. He landed at Dunbar and, from the pilgrimage
of ten miles through ice and snow to the sanctuary of Whitekirk,
he contracted the gout from which he suffered for the rest of
his life. Although on his return from Scotland Cardinal Albergati
was no longer at Basle, he determined to remain in the city, and
to his humanistic culture and oratorical talent owed his appointment
to different important functions by the council. He continued
to side with the opposition to Eugene IV, and associated particularly
with a small circle of friends who worshipped classical antiquity
and led dissolute lives. That he freely indulged his passions
is evidenced not only by the birth of two illegitimate children
to him (the one in Scotland, the other at Strasburg), but by the
frivolous manner in which he glories in his own disorders. The
low moral standard of the epoch may partly explain, but cannot
excuse his dissolute conduct. He had not yet received Holy orders,
however, and shrank from the ecclesiastical state because of the
obligation of continence which it imposed. Even the inducement
to become one of the electors of a successor to Eugene IV, unlawfully
deposed, could not overcome this reluctance; rather than receive
the diaconate he refused the proffered honour.
He was then appointed
master of ceremonies to the conclave which elected Amadeus of
Savoy to the papacy. He likewise belonged to the delegation which
was to escort to Basle in 1439 the newly- elected antipope, who
assumed the name of Felix V and chose Piccolomini as his secretary.
The latter's clearsightedness, however, soon enabled him to realize
that the position of the schismatic party could not fail to become
untenable, and he profited by his presence as envoy of the council
at the Diet of Frankfort in 1442 again to change masters. His
literary attainments were brought to the attention of Frederick
III, who crowned him imperial poet, and offered him a position
in his service which was gladly accepted. On 11 Nov., 1442, Enea
left Basle for Vienna, where he assumed in January of the following
year the duties of secretary in the imperial chancery. Receding
gradually from his attitude of supporter of Felix V, he ultimately
became, with the imperial chancellor Schlick, whose favour he
enjoyed, a partisan of Eugene IV. The formal reconciliation between
him and this pope took place in 1445, when he came on an official
mission to Rome. He was first absolved of the censures which he
had incurred as partisan of the Council of Basle and official
of the antipope. Hand in hand with this change in personal allegiance
went a transformation in his moral character and in March, 1446,
he was ordained subdeacon at Vienna. The same year he succeeded
in breaking up the Electors' League, equally dangerous to Eugene
IV and Frederick III, and shortly afterwards a delegation, of
which he was a member, laid before the pope the conditional submission
of almost all Germany. In 1447 he was appointed Bishop of Trieste;
the following year he played a prominent part in the conclusion
of the Concordat of Vienna; and in 1450 he received the Bishopric
of Siena. He continued, however, until 1455 in the service of
Frederick III, who had frequent recourse to his diplomatic ability.
In 1451 he appeared in Bohemia at the head of a royal embassy,
and in 1452 accompanied Frederick to Rome for the imperial coronation.
He was created cardinal 18 Dec., 1456, by Calixtus III, whose
successor he became.
central idea of his pontificate was the liberation of Europe
from Turkish domination.
To this end he summoned at the beginning of his reign all the
Christian princes to meet in congress on 1 June, 1459. Shortly
before his departure for Mantua, where he was personally to direct
the deliberations of this assembly, he issued a Bull instituting
a new religious order of knights. They were to bear the name of
Our Lady of Bethlehem and to have their headquarters in the Island
of Lemnos. History is silent concerning the actual existence of
this foundation, and the order was probably never organized. At
Mantua scant attendance necessitated a delay in the opening of
the sessions until 26 Sept., 1459. Even then but few delegates
were present, and the deliberations soon revealed the fact that
the Christian states could not be relied on for mutual co-operation
against the Turks. Venice pursued dilatory and insincere tactics;
France would promise nothing, because the pope had preferred Ferrante
of Aragon for the throne of Naples to the pretender of the House
of Anjou. Among the German delegates, Gregory of Heimburg (q.v.)
assumed an ostentatiously disrespectful attitude toward Pius II;
the country, however, ultimately agreed to raise 32,000 footmen
and 10,000 cavalry. But the promise was never redeemed, and although
a three years' war was decreed against the Turks, the congress
failed of its object, as no practical results of any importance
were attained. It was apparent that the papacy no longer commanded
the assent and respect of any of the Powers. This was further
demonstrated by the fact that Pius, on the eve of his departure
from Mantua, issued the Bull "Execrabilis", in which
he condemned all appeals from the decisions of the pope to an
oecumenical council (18 Jan., 1460).
the congress war had broken out in southern Italy about the
possession of the
Kingdom of Naples. The pope continued to support Ferrante against
the Angevin claimant. This attitude was adverse to ecclesiastical
interests in France, where he aimed at the repeal of the Pragmatic
Sanction of Bourges. At his accession to the throne in 1461, Louis
XI suppressed indeed that instrument; but this papal success was
more apparent than real. For Louis's expectation of support in
southern Italy was not realized; and opposition to the suppression
manifesting itself in France, his dealings with the Church underwent
a corresponding change, and royal ordinances were even issued
aiming at the revival of the former Gallican liberties. In Germany
Frederick III showed readiness to comply with the obligations
assumed at Mantua, but foreign and domestic difficulties rendered
him powerless. Between Pius II and Duke Sigismund of Tyrol, however,
an acute conflict developed concerning the Bishopric of Brixen
(q.v.). Likewise the refusal of the Archbishop of Mainz, Diether
of Isenburg (q.v.) to abide by the pope's decree of deposition
led to civil strife. Diether was ultimately defeated and supplanted
by Adolf of Nassau, who had been appointed in his stead. More
difficult to adjust were the troubles in Bohemia. Hussitism was
rampant in the kingdom, which was governed by the wily George
Podiebrad, a king seemingly devoid of religious convictions. He
had promised in a secret coronation oath personally to profess
the Catholic faith and to restore, in his realm, union with Rome
in ritual and worship. This was tantamount to a renunciation of
the "Compact of Basle", which, under certain conditions
subsequently not observed by the Bohemians, had granted them communion
under both kinds and other privileges. The pope, deceived for
a time by the protestations of royal fidelity, used his influence
to bring back the Catholic city of Breslau to the king's allegiance.
But in 1461 Podiebrad, to further his fanciful schemes of political
aggrandizement, promised his subjects to maintain the Compact.
When in 1462 his long- promised embassy appeared in Rome, its
purpose was not only to do homage to the pope, but also to obtain
the confirmation of that agreement. Pius II, instead of acceding
to the latter request, withdrew the misused concessions made by
Basle. He continued negotiations with the king, but died before
any settlement was reached.
of such discord in Christendom left but little hope for armed
opposition to the Turks. As rumours had been circulated that the
sultan doubted the faith of Islam, the pope attempted to convert
him to the Christian faith. But in vain did he address to him
in 1461 a letter, in which were set forth the claims of Christianity
on his belief. Possibly the transfer with extraordinary pomp of
the head of St. Andrew to Rome was also a fruitless attempt to
rekindle zeal for the Crusades. As a last resort, Pius II endeavoured
to stir up the enthusiasm of the apathetic Christian princes by
placing himself at the head of the crusaders. Although seriously
ill he left Rome for the East, but died at Ancona, the mustering-place
of the Christian troops.
have been widely divergent appreciations of the life of Pius
II. While his
varied talents and superior culture cannot be doubted, the motives
of his frequent transfer of allegiance, the causes of the radical
transformations which his opinions underwent, the influences exercised
over him by the environment in which his lot was cast, are so
many factors, the bearing of which can be justly and precisely
estimated only with the greatest difficulty. In the early period
of his life he was, like many humanists, frivolous and immoral
in conduct and writing. More earnest were his conceptions and
manner of life after his entrance into the ecclesiastical state.
As pope he was indeed not sufficiently free from nepotism, but
otherwise served the best interests of the Church. Not only was
he constantly solicitous for the peace of Christendom against
Islam, but he also instituted a commission for the reform of the
Roman court, seriously endeavoured to restore monastic discipline,
and defended the doctrine of the Church against the writings of
Reginald Peacock, the former Bishop of Chichester. He retracted
the errors contained in his earlier writings in a Bull, the gist
of which was "Reject Eneas, hold fast to Pius". St.
Catherine of Siena was canonized during his pontificate.
among the many cares of his pontificate he found time for continued
activity. Two important works of his were either entirely or partly
written during this period: his geographical and ethnographical
description of Asia and Europe; and his "Memoirs", which
are the only autobiography left us by a pope. They are entitled "Pii
II Commentarii rerum memorabilium, quae temporibus suis contigerunt".
Earlier in his life he had written, besides "Eurialus and
Lucretia" and the recently discovered comedy "Chrysis",
the following historical works: "Libellus dialogorum de generalis
concilii auctoritate et gestis Basileensium"; "Commentarius
de rebus Basileae gestis"; "Historia rerum Frederici
III imperatoris"; "Historia Bohemica". Imcomplete
collections of his works were published in 1551 and 1571 at Basle.
A critical edition of his letters by Wolkan is in course of publication.
Pii II in MURATORI, Rer. Ital. script., III, ii, 967-92; PLATINA,
Lives of the Popes, tr. RYCAUT, ed. BENHAM (3 vols., London, 1888);
WOLKAN, Der Briefwechsel des Eneas Silvius Piccolomini in Fontes
rerum Austriacarum (Vienna, 1909-); VOIGT, Enea Silvio de' Piccolomini
als Papst Pius II und sein Zeitalter (Berlin, 1856-63); CREIGHTON,
History of the Papacy, III (new ed., New York, 1903), 202-358;
WEISS, Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini als Papst Pius II (Graz, 1897);
PASTOR, History of the Popes (London, 1891-94); BOULTING, Aeneas
Silvius (Pius II), Orator, Man of Letters, Statesman, and Pope
(London, 1908); The Cambridge Modern History, I; The Renaissance
(New York, 1909), passim.
James First Duke
The Following is by: Thomas
succeeded at the age of nineteen. For the next three years he
Scotland. He then received ~ pressing message from King Charles
to come to Court. This he did, and had the Order of the Garter
and a number of other offices bestowed upon him. He was afterwards
sent abroad, by the King’s desire, to assist Gustavus Adolphus
in invading Germany. When Charles visited Scotland in 1633 the
Marquis accompanied him and took part in the Coronation ceremonies.
After this he seems to have retired from public life, until the
people began to openly resist the order to use Laud’s Service-Book
in all the churches. Charles then specially commissioned the Marquis
to settle these disorders; and in this task he naturally incurred
a marked degree of popular odium. His efforts were useless, and
he was obliged, after many negotiations and two journeys to London,
where he seriously consulted and advised with Charles, to proclaim
the meeting of the famous General Assembly at Glasgow in November,
1638. Hamilton then went south again, but returned in a year as
General and Commander of a fleet with which the King meant to
silence the Covenanters. It is related of his mother, Marchioness
Anna Cunningham, that when her son the Marquis arrived with his
fleet in the Forth she rode up and down the sands of Leith, carrying
pistols in her holsters, and threatening to blow out the brains
of her son should be cross her path to molest the Covenanters.
Whether this scared him we do not know, but at any rate a truce
was before long agreed to at Dunse Law, and the Marquis again
retired into private life.
1641 Charles made his second visit to Scotland, and Hamilton,
who was with
him, was one of the intended victims of a plot known as “The incident,” whereby
Argyll, Hamilton, and Lanark, his brother, were to be seized and
carried on board a Royal frigate at Leith. The plot was discovered,
and these lords withdrew to Kinneil House, and refused to meet
the King. It is not clear, however, whether Charles was involved
in the affair or not.
April, 1643, the King, by a charter dated at Oxford, created
the Marquis Duke
of Hamilton, Marquis of Clydesdale, Earl of Arran and Cambridge,
Lord Avon and Innerdale, with remainder to himself an~ the heirs-male
of his body; whom failing, to his brother William and the heirs-male
of his body; whom failing, to the eldest heir-female of the Duke’s
body, without division; and it was under this destination that
his daughter, the Duchess Anne, in time succeeded. The Duke and
his brother Lanark were slandered to the King, and the former
was for a time imprisoned.
must be remembered that during all this time the Duke’s old mother was still alive.
Her son’s association with the King against the Covenanters, of
whom she was a strong supporter, not only aroused her wrath, as
we have seen, but caused her great grief. This can be gathered
from her Will.” That document was written with her own hand at
Holyrood House on 4th November, 1644, and in the introduction
she explains that she considers it her duty to put her house in
order, lest she “should be chapit at on ane soudentie.” Referring
apparently to this imprisonment of her son, my lord douck,” she,
in making him her executor and heir, leaves him her blessing,
and prays the Lord to direct him and to grant that he may make
the right use of this visitation” that is laid upon him; also
that he may have God’s glory before his eyes, and look more to
that than to all this world can give him. Then she says, there
is one thing that she would beseech him to do above any other
earthly thing, if ever he got out of prison, and that was to “mack
chois of soum good woman to mache with,” so that if it pleased
the Lord his father’s house might stand in his person, which she
prayed the Lord might be. (Hi. first wife had died some years
before, and their two sons had died young.) In her bequests she
leaves him her right, and leases of her coal of Kinneil, and mentions
that it had cost her much money, and servants did reap the profit;
but now it was in so good ease that he could not but make great
benefit out of it. She counsels him to put faithful servants to
it, and never to put it Out of his own hands. She leaves him all
her salt-pans, and advises him to build more, for she believes
the profit will be great if God sent peace. She also leaves him
the plenishing in her house in Kinneil, her new tapestry, and
all other movables she either made or bought, except her silver
saltfit and some little silver porringers which she left to her “dochtir.” She
further requested him to be “caynd to his sister and hir childring,” for
she believed she was a good woman and feared the Lord.
for her son Lanark, who had also been, as a Royalist, opposed
to the Covenanters,
she prayed the Lord to hold his heart upright before Him, and
make him now, after his past wanderings, a faithful servant in
His cause, and let him never fall back from Him, lest his last
state be worse than his first; she prayed God also to take a grip
of his heart and reveal Himself, and let him know that in the
day of death there is no comfort to be found but in Him, for all
the monarchs and monarchies in the world could not give one moment’s
ease. A blink of the face of a reconciled God was a sweet thing;
therefore, for Christ’s sake, he was to seek Him in time, and
away with the follies of Courts, for their ways were but wicked,
and all their delights and sweetness in the end would bring bitterness.
These maternal solicitations concluded with, “Remembir this is
the last saying of ane louing mother.”
closing events in the reign of King Charles are all so veil
known that they need
not be recalled here. We must remember, however, that when the
King was captured the Duke did all ho could to obtain his release,
just as he before that had—hopelessly, however, because of the
King’s obstinacy in repudiating the Covenant—done what he could
to advance the King’s interests. And we must also remember that
when a last effort was made to rescue the King from the hands
of Cromwell, the “Engagers” or band of Scottish Royalists who
did so were led by the Duke. Cromwell easily defeated this force
near Preston in 1648. The Duke was taken and imprisoned in various
places, Windsor Castle being the last. He had an affecting interview
with the King here on the Latter’s last journey to London. After
the King’s execution in January, 1649, the Duke escaped, but was
re-taken. He was then tried at Westminster, and beheaded in the
Palace Yard on 9th March. His remains were first sent to his house
of Kinneil, and from there taken to Hamilton, where they were
buried. He is said to have been of an affectionate and kindly
temperament, and strongly attached to his brother. It was a good
thing that his poor old mother was spared the grief of his trial
and execution, she having been “chapit at,” and left this troublesome
world some little time before. The Duke did not marry a second
time. He Left two daughters—Anne, who became Duchess of Hamilton
in her own right, and Susanna, who married the seventh Earl of
Tam Dalyell (b. 1615, d. 1685)
the 14th & 18th Century many Scots
served as mercenaries in Europe, most were soldiers or low ranking
officers, but a few such as General Tam Dalyell of The Binns
were very influential and well educated. General Dalyell was
captured at the Battle of Worcester and imprisoned in the Tower
of London by Cromwell. One of the few prisoners ever to escape
from the Tower Tam fled to Russia where he became a noble and
took a Russian wife while training the army when in the service
of Czar Alexei Mikhailovitch: father of Peter the Great.
Dalyell (or Dalziel) (1615-1685), the scourge the Covenanters
who called him "Bluidy Tam" (for
his suppression of the Pentland Rising at Rullion Green) is
probably the most famous or infamous local character about which
much has been written. Returning home from service in Russia,
while in exile, to fight against the Covenanters for Charles
II, the Muscovite De'il (a pun on his name) was also known as
'The Muskovia Beast who used to roast men in the baking ovens
of The Binns.
the Restoration of Charles II Tam was appointed Commander-in-Chief
of the King’s forces in Scotland and made a Privy Councillor.
is interesting to note that after the defeat of the Covenanters
forces at Rullion Green in 1666 Tam received a letter of congratulations
from the King only to resign his commission for 10 years because
30 women and children camp followers were massacred by the King’s
troops after Rullion Green. This protest was because of the
action of his troops against his specific instruction not to.
Dalyell’s have inhabited the Binns for over 300 years and have
had a great influence on local history: Sir
Tam (Thomas) Dalyell Baronet (Bt NS 1685) 10th Laird
of the Binns MP being the current inhabitant. Like the
apes of Gibraltar it is said that while peacock’s parade on
the lawns of the Binns (which is Gaelic for hills) it will remain
in the hands of the Dalyell family.
tales about the Commander-in-Chief of the King’s forces in Scotland
(1666 – 1685) have transcended the years since his death. It
was said that Tam and the devil played cards on a regular basis.
Auld Nick usually beat Tam but one night the General won. The
devil was so enraged that he hurled the heavy marble table that
they were playing on at Tam's head. The table missed the General
and landed in a pond, which lay outside the house.
had added a west wing to the building creating a "U" shape
around the cobbled courtyard. He had also added turrets to the
corners of the Binns, which puzzled his tenants, as they couldn't
figure out exactly what the fortified towers were for.
said that Tam had had an argument with his old friend the devil.
Auld Nick had threatened to blow the Binns down and the General
had replied that he would make sure he wouldn't by fortifying
the building with walls. The devil had said Tam's walls wouldn't
be strong enough to protect the Binns, but the General replied
that he would reinforce the building's corners with turrets
to anchor his property down.
August 1685 Lieutenant-General Tam Dalyell died at his town
house just off John Street in the burgh of the Canongate where
he lived with his fourth wife Marion Abercrombie. Following
military tradition his boots were hung in reverse from the saddle
of his horse while his martial baton was carried on the top
of the coffin. Troopers of the Royal Scots Dragoons, the red-coated
Scots Guards and six field guns escorted his funeral procession.
Watched by hundreds of citizens, who lined the route, the sombre
military procession with muffled drums beating wound its way
slowly up the hill through Portsburgh leaving the city by the
Tom of Muscovy" as he had been nick named by King Charles
II was buried beside his parents in the family vault at Abercorn
Church not far from The Binns. Tam's third son John took his
father's cavalry boots back to his home at Lingo in Fife but
he was forced to return them to The Binns. Every night when
he took them off they wakened the sleeping household as they
marched round the house. It was said that if cold water was
poured into them, it would quickly come to a boil.
he was gone, Tam's legend continued to grow. On pitch black
nights the General mounted on a white charger could be seen
entering his estate by the Black Lodge situated on the road
between Bo’ ness and Queensferry. Clattering across the ruined
bridge over the Errack Burn, the ghostly horse and rider would
gallop up the old road to the Binns.
the long hot summer of 1878 nearly two hundred years after the
General's death, the Sergeant's Pool outside the Binns where
the troopers of the Greys had watered their horses dried up.
heavy table of carved marble that Tam might have used when he
was playing cards was found buried in the mud.
Dalyell raised the Scots Greys in 1681 after he noted while
in Russia that it was much more difficult to spot Russian soldiers
than traditional "British Red Coats". Therefore the
Scots Greys wore grey uniforms as camouflage, which was successfully
used against the Covenanters. He had also raised a regiment
of infantry in 1666, but no records of the foot regiment exist
is the official Biography of General Dalyell written by:
Lady Kathleen Dalyell, daughter of Lord Wheatly
story of The Binns is dominated by one man —General Tam Dalyell,
born in 1615 to Thomas Dalyell and his wife Janet Bruce. The
general was a
leading figure in the turbulent times of seventeenth-century Scotland.
Like his father,
Tim signed the National Covenant in 1638, but became a Royalist,
fighting for Charles fin the Civil War. When Charles was executed
in 1649 Tam took an oath never to cut his hair until the Stuarts
were restored to the throne.
Charles 11 was crowned in Scotland in 1650, General Tam joined
the army raised
to invade England and was captured at the Battle of Worcester
the following year. Cromwell imprisoned him in the Tower of London,
but he escaped — one of the very few prisoners ever to do so.
fled to the Continent, where he became a mercenary in the service
Alexei Mikhailovich, father of Peter the Great. For ten years,
General Tam trained the Tsar’s army: he became a Russian noble
and took a Russian wife. He returned home after the Restoration
in 1660 to become Commander-in-Chief of the king’s forces in Scotland
with the suppression of the Covenanters, Tam defeated their
forces in 1666
at Rullion Green in the Pentlands, and received a letter from
the king commending him for ‘the happy success you have had against
the rebels in Scotland’.
his exploits in Russia and from the Covenanting historians the
his reputation as ‘Bloody Tam, the Muscovy Brute’. Yet when thirty
women and children camp followers were massacred by the king’s
troops after Rullion Green, against Tam’s express instructions,
the General resigned his commission in protest. He retired from
public office for ten years, devoting himself to his estate and
garden at The Binns.
by 1678 General Tam was back in the king’s service to combat a renewed threat
from the Covenanters. In 1681, he was appointed Colonel of the
Royal Regiment of Scots Dragoons, later to become the Royal Scots
Grey’s (and now amalgamated into the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards).
The first muster
of the recruits was held at The Binns. At the Barns on the estate
the building they used as a barracks is still visible, although
in ruins. The pond to the left of the drive
up to the house was widened and deepened to water the horses,
It is interesting
that General Tam sent to Flanders for grey cloth for uniforms
for his regiment. Having seen in Russia how effectively the Poles
had used white uniforms as camouflage against the snow, he decided
that grey could be used in the same way in Scottish surroundings.
So the regiment wore grey instead of the traditional scarlet,
and became known as the Royal Scots Greys.
General Tam died
in 1685 in his house in the Canongate in Edinburgh. After a military
funeral his corpse was buried in the family vault in the ancient
church of Abercorn near The Binns, site of one of the earliest
Christian settlements in Scotland in the seventh century, and
mentioned by Bede.
II had intended to grant a baronetcy to General Tam for his
but they both died before this could be finalised. Instead, James
II conferred the title on General Tam’s son. By a special disposition,
it can descend through ‘heirs male and of tailyie’ — that is,
through the female line in default of male heirs. This has happened
three times in the family’s history.
Duchess of Hamilton (b. ~ 1636, d. 1716)
family had already been connected with Kinneil for 336 years at
the time of the Restoration when Charles II returned from France
and was restored to kingship at Whitehall in May 1660. In 1661 the
King re-granted Duchess Anne all the lands and baronies of Hamilton,
Kinneil and others that had previously belonged to her uncle William
second Duke of Hamilton. Of all the members of the Hamilton family
it is Duchess Anne or Anna that the people of Bo’ ness are most
obligated. In January 1668 King Charles II granted a charter, in
favour of Duchess Anne and her heirs, creating the lands and baronies
of Kinneil, Carriden, and others, and the town of Borrowstounness
into a Regality. This charter named the Borrowstounness as the head
burgh of the Regality. An Act of the Scots Parliament in 1669 embodied
the aforementioned charter and additionally gave the burgh the privilege
of a free port and harbour. In addition to this it was Anna that
enlarged and restored Kinneil Palace to become the grand house that
we now see today. There is also evidence that the Palace was going
to be further enlarged to include a southern wing, which speculation
predicts may have been a mirror image of the existing northern wing.
Anna may also have been responsible for creating 4 annual fairs
in Bo’ness about 1668, certainly she petitioned parliament and brought
forward the date of the fourth fair from 18th November
to the second Tuesday of July. This may have been because of inclement
weather in November or to compete commercially with Linlithgow’s
Marches Day since it was at these country fairs that much business
is by: Thomas James Salmon
We have now reached that member of
the Hamilton family whose interest in Kinneil and Borrowstounness
was very great. This was Anne, Duchess of Hamilton in her
own right. As her uncle William left no male issue, she
succeeded him, in terms of the destination in the charter
of Charles I. to her father.
The Duchess Anne,
or Anna as she is sometimes named, was born about 1636, and so
was about fifteen when her uncle died. She lived to the long age
of eighty, but her long and useful life was not without its heavy
sorrows. When she was thirteen her father, the first Duke, was
executed, and she lived to bemoan the termination of the career
of her son, the. Fourth Duke, in a duel with Lord Mohun. She was
a lady of great constancy of mind, evenness of temper, solidity
of judgment, and unaffected piety. In April, 1656, she married
William Douglas, eldest son of the second marriage of William,
first Marquis of Douglas.
Four years after
the marriage came the Restoration, when Charles II. returned from
France and was restored to kingship at Whitehall, amid great rejoicing,
in May, 1660. Duchess Anne and her husband soon came under Royal
favour, and in September of the same year the King bestowed upon
the latter for life the titles of Duke of Hamilton, Marquis of
Clydesdale, Earl of Arran, Lanark, and Selkirk.
year later the Duchess received from the King a re-grant of
all the lands and
baronies of Hamilton, Kinneil, and others which had been resigned
by her uncle to the King when they were together at The Hague
in 1650.The Duke’s first business was to remove the burden of
debt under which the Hamilton estates lay. He then gave some attention
to public affairs.
Duchess Anne and Duke William, her husband. much credit is due
for the early
development of “the village” of Borrowstounness. With them commenced
a thoroughly practical interest in the struggling town and in
their own House of Kinneil. On the latter they made very considerable
alterations, greatly enlarging and embellishing it. And there
is no doubt whatever that they made it a frequent place of residence.
reign of Charles 11., as we know, was full of bitterness and
bloodshed for Scotland
over religious difficulties. In all this the inhabitants of the
young town and of the surrounding district had their share: and,
loyal as the Duke had originally been to the King, he seems to
have resented the repeated attempts of Charles to pat down Presbyterianism.
Hamilton most strongly and openly opposed the Duke of Lauderdale,
who had become Secretary for Scotland, and was, unfortunately,
exercising a remarkable influence over the King. Lauderdale, in
the former reign, had been a zealous Covenanter.>He now turned
about and became as bitter and severe against Covenanters and
conventicles as he had hitherto been zealous for them.
is good evidence locally to show that Duke William was a keen
man, and we are not surprised to find that he strongly condemned
Lauderdale’s Government, setting forth a variety of grievances
in the law, revenue, and commerce. This attitude lost him all
favour at Court. On the accession of James II. that monarch was
anxious to get the Duke’s support for his schemes Of toleration
during his short reign of three years, but he does not appear
to have succeeded.
On the contrary,
it is stated that the Duke was one of the first in Scotland to
welcome the coming of William, Prince of Orange. Moreover, he
was President of the Convention of Estates, which met in 1690,
and accepted William and Mary as King and Queen of Scotland. He
died in April, 1694, at Holyrood, and was buried at Hamilton.
William, we read, was not of polished manners; he was rough, but
candid and sincere. His temper was boisterous, less calculated
to submit than to govern. He wrote well, but spoke ill. It is
said also that he had an expert knowledge of the families, laws,
and history of his country.
To revert to their
local connection, we will find in the first chapter on the Regality
that King Charles II., in January, 1668, granted a charter in
favour of Duchess Anne and her heirs, creating the lands and baronies
of Kinneil, Carriden, and others, and the town of Borrowstounness,
into a Regality, and naming the town to be the head burgh of the
Regality. This was the first important step towards the proper
local government of the district.
Act of the Sects Parliament ~n 1669, doubtless on the supplication
of the Duke
and Duchess, embodied the above charter, and, in addition, gave
the burgh the privilege ~of a free port and harbour. There can
be no doubt that the Regality Charter was obtained by the Duchess
on her own and her husband’s initiative in the interests of a
town and district which seemed full of possibilities for superior
and vassal alike.
in 1669, we discover the Duke and Duchess Anne supplicating
and getting the Kirk and Parish of Kinneil suppressed and included
in the Parish of Bo’ness, the Kirk of Bo’ness declared to be the
Kirk of the United Parish, and appointing the Duke and Duchess
to provide a manse and glebe in Bo’ness in place of the old manse
and glebe of Kinneil. Again, we find an Act of the Sots Parliament
in favour of Duchess Anne changing the fourth fair of Borrowstounness
from 18th November to the second Tuesday of July.
Act is also found in 1672 authorising the Duke and Duchess to
the vacant stipend to the repair of the Kirk and manse of Bo’ ness.
And in the “Register of Bandes” of our Regality Court there is
recorded in October, 1717, an Obligement by the Duchess Anne to
contribute £5 sterling yearly for defraying the expense of the
communion elements at the celebration of the sacrament in the
Kirk of Bo’ness.
James Gardner (b. 1687, d. 1745)
Gardner was born at Burnfoot cottage on the banks of the River Forth
on 10th January 1687. The cottage is aptly named because
it is situated immediately to the west of Carriden Burn where the
burn exits Carriden Glen to join the shoreline. The cottage also
lies immediately north of Cat Craig Ridge also to the west of Carriden
Glen and about half a miles walk due east of Carriden Church. Little
still stands of the cottage, but the one remaining window is said
to be that of the room in which Colonel Gardner was born. Thomas
Salmon, extensively using Colonel Gardner’s biography, written by
Dr Philip Doddridge, composed the following.
is by: Thomas James Salmon
into a wall at Burnfoot, Carriden, is a tablet with this inscription:-
To the memory
of Colonel James Gardiner, born here
1687; mortally wounded at the Battle
September 21st, 1745.
brave soldier and a devout Christian.
I have fought a good fight, I have
kept the faith.”—
Tim. iv. 7.
of Scott will remember that Colonel Gardiner was Edward Waverlev’s
commanding officer. The reverence which Waverley gave to his
chief, the horror
with which he witnessed his death, and the unavailing efforts
he made to get near to help him when cut down by the Highlanders,
form part of the graphic description of the battle.
His pious character
recalls Hedley Vicars and Chinese Gordon.
Doddridge, the famous divine and hymn-Writer, was On terms of
intimacy with Gardiner, and about two years after Prestonpans
he wrote Gardiner’s biography. There he gives a vivid and lengthened
account of his friend’s spiritual experiences. Jupiter Carlyle,
also, in his autobiography gives frequent glimpses of him. Thus
abundant material is at the disposal of any one who wishes to
make the acquaintance of this brave and pious soldier. Doddridge
is evidently in doubt as to the year of his birth, as he gives
1687-8, but the tablet at Carriden has 1687.
father was Captain Patrick Gardiner, of the family of Torwood
Head. and his mother Mary Hodge, of the family of Gladsmuir. The
Captain served in the Army in the time of William and Queen Anne,
and died with the British forces in Germany shortly after the
battle of Hochset.
eon, afterwards Colonel Gardiner, was educated at the Grammar
School of Linlithgow.
He served as a cadet very early, and at fourteen years of age
obtained an ensign’s commission in a Scots regiment in the Dutch
service, in which he continued till 1702, when he received an
ensign’s commission from Queen Anne. At the battle of Ramillies,
where he specially distinguished himself, he was wounded and taken
prisoner, but was soon after exchanged. We are told that at this
battle, while calling to his men to advance, a bullet passed into
his mouth, which, without beating out any of his teeth or touching
the forepart of his tongue, went through his neck. The young officer,
like so many of the wounded engaged with the Duke of Marlborough’s
army, was left on the field unattended, and lay there all night,
not knowing what Me fate might be. His suspicions at first were
that he had swallowed the bullet, but he afterwards made the discovery
that there was a hole in the back of his neck, through which it
must have passed. In the morning the French came to plunder the
slain, and one of them was on the point of applying his sword
breast of the young
officer when an attendant of the plunderers, taking the injured
lad by his dress for a Frenchman, interposed, and said, “ Do
not kill that poor child.” He was given some stimulant, and carried
to a convent in the neighbourhood, where he was cured in a few
months. He served with distinction in the other famous battles
fought by the Duke of Marlborough, and rose to the rank of colonel
of a new regiment of Dragoons.
a young man he was what would now be called fast; but he was
at all times
so bright and cheerful that he was known as the “happy rake.” His
remarkable conversion occurred when waiting till twelve o’clock
on a Sunday night to keep a certain appointment. To while away
the time he took up a book which his mother had placed in his
portmanteau. This was “The Christian Soldier; or Heaven Taken
by Storm.” The result was that he forgot his appointment, and
became converted. Nor was the change either fanatical or temporary.
Gardiner was still as careful, active, and obedient a soldier
as ever, but now he tried in his private life to avoid even the
appearance of evil. He was specially anxious to appear pleasant
and cheerful lest his associates might be led to think That religion
fostered a gloomy, forbidding, and austere disposition. At the
same time, he set himself sternly against infidelity and licentiousness.
circumstances connected with Colonel Gardiner’s death at the
Battle of Prestonpans are very tragic, and have been frequently
treated in history and
fiction. The brutality connected with his death cannot be excused
and scarcely palliated by the ignorance of his assailants. By
all who knew him - military friend or foe - his death was deplored.
is by: Thomas James Salmon
WILLIAM WISHART, TWELFTH PRINCIPAL OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH, 1716-1729
Mr. Wishart was
a son of the last minister of Kinneil. There is no available evidence
as to date and place of birth, but it ishighly probable that it
was Kinneil. The eldest son, afterwards Sir George,
entered the Army, and ultimately acquired the estate of Cliftonhall,
Ratho; the next, afterwards, Sir James, of Little Chelsea,
was a Rear-Admiral in the Royal Navy, and died in 1723; and the
third became one of the ministers of Edinburgh and Principal of
William Wishart succeeded
the great William Carstares in the Principalship, and it is
thought that the Latter recommended him to the Town Council, with
the appointment lay. William graduated at Edinburgh in 16Th,
and afterwards proceeded to Utrecht to study theology. Like his
he had to suffer imprisonment, for on his return from Holland
(1684) he was imprisoned by the Privy Council in the “Iron House” on
the charge of denying the King’s authority. He was released the
next year under bond, with caution of 5000 merks, to appear when
called. Ho then became minister of South Leith (it will be recalled
that his father also was minister in Leith after the suppression
of Kinneil), and afterwards of the Tron Church. Wishart was five
times Moderator of the General Assembly, and has been described
as “a good, kind, grave, honest, and pious man, a sweet, serious,
and affectionate preacher whose life and conversation being of
a piece with his preaching made almost all who knew him personal
friends.” Two volumes of his sermons were published. His career
as Principal seems to have been uneventful.
may mention here also that on the 10th November, 1736, the Edinburgh
Council proceeded to elect to the fifteenth Principalship William
Wishart secundus, son of the above. The induction, however,
was postponed till November of the next year, a charge of heresy
barring the way. When called to be Principal he also received
a call from New Greyfriars. The Edinburgh Presbytery interposed
and objected to the doctrine of some sermons published by him
while minister of a Dissenting congregation in London. in which
he had maintained “that true religion is influenced by higher
motives than self-love.” After a keen debate the General Assembly
absolved Wishart from heresy, and he entered upon his charges.
He is said to have been more of a scholar and man of letters
than his father, and of an original turn of mind, adopting a
style of preaching from that formerly in vogue. He was less
stiff and formal, dealt more with moral considerations, and
simple and, at the same time, more literary language. His first
act as Principal was to start a library fund for the University.
He also made an attempt to improve the system of graduation
in Arts by demanding literary theses from the graduates. The
took a great interest in the more promising of the students,
constantly visited the junior classes, and used all means in
his power to
improve scholarship in the University.
Cadell of Cockenzie (b. 1708 d. 1777)
Cadell (1708-1777) first moved to Bo'ness from Cockenzie, East
Lothian, in 1759. Mr
Caddell was a member of a merchant family whose main business was
the import of iron from Russia and Sweden. The Seven Year's War
meant a high demand for weapons made from iron, but it also disrupted
the iron Baltic trade, thus the idea of Carron Iron Works was born.
It was therefore in a venture to mine and smelt ironstone, and not,
as often thought, primarily coal, that Caddell approached Dr Roebuck.
Carron Company was established as: Roebuck, Garbett & Cadells
in 1759. Dr Roebuck and Mr William Cadell agreed to locally mine
and smelt iron ore. The location was decided because of its proximity
to wood (charcoal), water for power, iron ore, coal and water for
transportation. What is not so well known is that the first choice
for the sighting of the iron works was not Stenhousemuir, but a
site near Jinkabout Mill. This choice was abandoned because a lease
was only available for 99 years. New Year's Day 1760 saw the opening
of Carron Company Iron Works, by Dr Roebuck
John Roebuck (b. 1718, d. 1794)
Dr John Roebuck was
born (b. 1718 d. 1794). Despite having a proven ability at school
he could not go to Oxford or Cambridge, as he was not a member
of the Church of England. He therefore studied medicine at Edinburgh
before completing his studies in 1742 at Leyden University in
Holland. The Seven Year's War meant a high demand for weapons
made from iron, but it also disrupted the iron Baltic trade, thus
the idea of Carron Iron Works was born. It was therefore in a
venture to mine and smelt ironstone, and not, as often thought,
primarily coal, that Cadell approached Dr Roebuck. Roebuck had
initially came to Scotland from Sheffield to manufacture Vitriol
(Sulphuric Acid) at his works in Prestonpans, where he had erected
large leaden chambers to produce the acid using his new process.
The process was so secret that large walls were built around the
factory perimeter and no stranger was allowed access. Carron Company
was established as: Roebuck, Garbett & Cadells in 1759. Dr
Roebuck and Mr William Cadell agreed to locally mine and smelt
iron ore. The location was decided because of its proximity to
wood (charcoal), water for power, iron ore, coal and water for
transportation. What is not so well known is that the first choice
for the sighting of the iron works was not Stenhousemuir, but
a site near Jinkabout Mill. This choice was abandoned because
a lease was only available for 99 years. New Year's Day 1760 saw
the opening of Carron Company Iron Works, by Dr Roebuck.
Dr Black first introduced James Watt (b.1736, d. 1819) to Dr Roebuck
in 1765. This period was to almost bankrupt Dr Roebuck and Watt
was unfortunately forced to Birmingham to perfect his steam engine
with the firm Boulton, Watt & Co. Although he was declared
bankrupt in 1773 Roebuck did manage to survive his financial embarrassment
founding Scotland's first large commercial pottery at Bo'ness
in 1787 under his son's name. He was also responsible for the
town's first fresh water supply.
is by: Thomas James Salmon
DR JOHN ROEBUCK
(b. 1718 d. 1794)
John Roebuck was born in Sheffield
where his father was a manufacturer of cutlery. He possessed
a most inventive turn of mind; studied chemistry and medicine
at Edinburgh; obtained the degree of M.D. from Leyden University
in 1742; established a chemical laboratory at Birmingham;
invented methods of refining precious metals and several
improvements in processes for the production of chemicals,
including the manufacture of sulphuric acid, at Prestonpans,
in 1749, where he was in partnership with Mr. Samuel Garbett,
1759, he, along with his, brothers, Thomas, Ebenezer, and Benjamin,
sen., William Cadell, jun., and Samuel Garbett, founded the Carron
Ironworks, which at one timer were the most celebrated in Europe.
His connection with Borrowstounnees began about the same time
when he became the lessee of the Duke’s coal mines and saltpans,
and took up residence at Kinneil House. The history of his partnership
with James Watt, the part which he played in the government of
the town, and the unfortunate collapse of all his plans are elsewhere
referred to. In I773 the doctor, owing to his financial misfortunes
here, had not only to give up his interest in Watt’s patent, but
had also to sever his connection with the Carron Company. His
spirit and business enterprise, however, were undaunted, and,
in 1784, we find him founding the Bo’ness Pottery. He died here
in 1794, and was buried in Carriden Churchyard.
the various works which he projected, all of a practical nature;
generous and kindly treatment of James Watt, and his keen desire
to promote the interests of the inhabitants of Bo’ness, we readily
conclude that, in ability and real goodness, he was far above
the average man. This is attested by the monument to his memory
which his friends erected over his grave. The inscription is in
Latin, but we give below a translation :-
Underneath this tombstone rests
no ordinary man,
John Roebuck, M.D.
who, of gentle birth and of
liberal education, applied his mind to almost all the liberal
arts. Though be made the practice of medicine his chief work in
his public capacity to the great advantage of his fellow-citizens,
yet he did not permit his inventive and tireless brain to rest
satisfied with that, but cultivated a great number of recondite
and abstruse sciences, among which were chemistry and metallurgy.
he expounded and adapted to human needs with a wonderful fertility
of genius and a high degree of painstaking labour; whence not
a few of all those delightful
works and pleasing structures which decorate our world, and by
their utility conduce to both public and private well-being he
either devised or promoted.
Of these the magnificent work
at the mouth of the Carron is his own invention. In extent of
friendship and of gentleness he warn surpassing great, and, though
harassed by adversity or deluded by hope and weighed down by so
many of our griefs, he yet could assuage these by his skill in
the arts of the muses or in the delights of the country.
For most learned conversation
and gracious familiarity no other was more welcome or more pleasant
on account of his varied and profound learning, his merry games,
and sparkling wit and humour. And, above all, on account of the
uprightness, benevolence, and good fellowship in his character.
Bewailed by his family and
missed by all good men, he died on the Ides (i.e., 15th)
of July. A.D. 1794, aged 76, in the arms of his wife, and with
his children around him.
This monument—such as
it is—the affection of friends has erected.
Watt (b. 1736, d. 181
in Greenock, Inverclyde James Watt was to become one of the
engineers. In 1754 Watt went to Glasgow to learn his trade as
a mathematical-instrument maker and after working in London for
a year he set up business in Glasgow. Although Watt is remembered
as the inventor of the steam engine most people ignore that it
was he who laid out the master plans for the Forth & Clyde
Canal, which was built in 1768-1790. Another of his major achievements
was the deepening of the River Clyde as it approached Glasgow:
this work was to be extended later by Telfer and Rennie when they
extended his initial channel further down river. In fact it is
actually a misconception that Watt invented the steam engine.
It was when he was repairing a Newcomen Engine in about 1763-4
that he found he could improve its performance by using a separate
steam condenser. Undoubtedly it was Watt that developed the steam
engine into a practical source of power. Although Watt was first
introduced by Dr Black to Dr Roebuck in 1765 it was 1768 before
he arrived in Bo’ ness with an engine that was deemed by both
to be worthwhile taking out a patent on. True because of the financial
situation of Dr Roebuck’s mines, by the early1970’s he was bankrupt
and could no longer invest in developing steam as a motive force.
Watt went into partnership with Mathew Boulton, forming Boulton,
Watt & Co.
in Birmingham. Watt’s new engine was manufactured in 1774 and
the rest is history.
His further inventions
included the double-acting engine, parallel motion linkage, the
centrifugal governor for automatic speed control, and the pressure
gauge. Watt first used the term horsepower, and the SI unit of
power is named after him.
is by: Thomas James Salmon
JAMES WATT (b. 1736, d. 1819)
The name and fame of this celebrated
natural philosopher and civil engineer are so well known that they
require little mention here. He was born in Greenock, but Glasgow
and Birmingham were the chief centres of his labours. Bo’ ness,
however, has a right to claim more than a passing interest in his
early endeavours to improve the steam engine. He had been struggling
as a mathematical instrument maker to the University of Glasgow
when his friend Professor l3lack spoke of him to Dr. Roebuck, who
was engaged sinking coal pits.
had been time and again thwarted in his attempt to reach the
coal by inrushes
of water, his Newcomen engine having proved practically useless.
Therefore, when Dr. Black informed him of this ingenious young
mechanic in Glasgow who had invented a steam engine capable of
working with a greater power, speed, and economy, Roebuck immediately
entered into correspondence with Watt. Roebuck was at first sceptical
as to the principle of Watt’s engine, and induced him to revert to
the old principle, with some modifications. Against his convictions
Watt tried a series of experiments, but abandoned them as hopeless,
Roebuck being also convinced of his error. Up to this time Watt
and Roebuck had not met, but. In September, 1765, Roebuck urged
him to come with Dr. Black to Kinneil House and fully discuss
the subject of the engine. Watt wrote to say that he was physically
unable for the journey to Kinneil, but would try to meet him on
a certain day at the works at Carron, in which the doctor had
an interest. Even this, however, had to be postponed. Roebuck
then wrote urging Watt to press forward his invention with all
speed, “whether you pursue it as a philosopher or as a man of
business.” In accordance with this urgent appeal, Watt forwarded
to Roebuck the working drawings of a covered cylinder and piston,
to be cast at the Carron Works. This cylinder, however, when completed,
was ill bored, and had to be laid aside as useless. The piston
rod was made in Glasgow, under his own supervision, and when finished
he was afraid to forward it on a common cart lest the workpeople
should see it, and so it was sent in a box to Carron in the month
of July, 1766.
secrecy was necessary to prevent his idea being appropriated
by others. Roebuck
was so confident of Watt’s success that in 1767 he undertook to
give him £1000 to pay the debts already incurred, to enable Watt
to continue his experiments, and to patent the engine. Roebuck’s
return was to be two-thirds of the property in the invention.
Early in 1768 Watt made a new and larger model, with a cylinder
of seven or eight inches diameter, but by an unforeseen misfortune “the
mercury found its way into the cylinder and played the devil with
the solder. This throws us back at least three days, and is very
vexatious, especially as it happened in spite of the precaution
I had taken to prevent it.” Disregarding the renewed demands of
the impatient Roebuck to meet and talk the matter over, Watt proceeded
to patch up his damaged engine. In a month’s time he succeeded,
and then rode triumphantly to Kinneil House, where his words to
Roebuck were, “I sincerely wish you joy of this successful result,
and I hope it will make some return for the obligations I owe
model was so satisfactory that it was at once determined to
take out a patent
for the engine, and Watt journeyed to Berwick, where he obtained
a provisional protection. It had been originally intended to build
the engine in “the little town of Borrowstounness.” For the sake
of privacy, however, Watt fixed upon an outhouse in a email enclosure
to the south of Kinneil House, where &n abundant supply of
water could be obtained from the Gil burn. The materials required
were brought here from Glasgow and Carron, and a few workmen were
placed at his disposal. The cylinder—of eighteen inches diameter
and five feet stroke—was cast at Carron. Progress was slow and
the mechanics clumsy. Watt was occasionally compelled to be absent
on other business, and on his return he usually found the men
at a standstill. As the engine neared completion his anxiety kept
him sleepless at nights, for his fears were more than equal to
his hopes. He was easily cast down by little obstructions, and
especially discouraged by unforeseen expense. About six months
after its commencement the new engine, on which he had expended
so much labour, anxiety, and ingenuity, was completed. But its
success was far from decided. Watt himself declared it to be a
clumsy job. He was grievously depressed by his want of success,
and he had serious thoughts of giving up the thing altogether.
Before abandoning it, however, the engine was again thoroughly
overhauled, many improvements were effected, and a new trial made
of its powers. But this did not prove more successful than the
earlier one had been. “You cannot conceive," he wrote to
Small, “how mortified I am with this disappointment. It is a damned
thing for a man to have his all hanging by a single string. If
I had the wherewithal to pay the loss, I don’t think I should
so much fear a failure; but I cannot bear the thought of other
people becoming losers by my schemes, and I have the happy disposition
of always painting the worst.” Bound therefore by honour not less
than by interest, he summoned up his courage and went on anew.
In the principles of his engine he continued to have confidence,
and believed that, could mechanics be found who would be capable
of accurately executing its several parts, success was certain.
By this time Roebuck was becoming embarrassed with debts and involved
in various difficulties. The pits were drowned with water, which
no existing machinery could pump out, and ruin threatened to overtake
him before Watt’s engine could come to his help. The doctor had
sunk in his coal works his own fortune and part of that of his
relations, and was thus unable to defray the expense of taking
out the patent and otherwise fulfilling his engagement with the
inventor. In his distress Watt appealed to Dr. Black for assistance,
and a loan was forthcoming; but, of course, this only left him
deeper in debt, without any clear prospect of ultimate relief.
No wonder that_ he should, after his apparently fruitless labour,
have expressed to Small his belief that, “Of all things in life,
there is nothing more foolish than inventing.” The unhappy state
of his mind may be further inferred from his lamentation expressed
in a letter to the same friend on the 31st of January, 177O—” To-day
I enter the thirty-fifth year of my life, and I think I have hardly
yet done thirty4lve pence worth of good to the world; but I cannot
help it.” By the death, also, of his wife, who cheered him greatly
in his labours, an unfortunate combination of circumstances seemed
to overwhelm him. No further progress had yet been made with his
steam engine, which, indeed, lie almost cursed as the cause of
his misfortunes Dr. Roebuck’s embarrassments now reached their
climax. He had fought against the water until he could fight no
more, and was at last delivered into the hands of his creditors,
a ruined man. His share in Watt’s invention was then transferred
to Matthew Boulton, of Birmingham.
was the turning-point for Watt. Birmingham was an excellent
trade centre, and within
it were to be found experienced mechanics. The firm of Boulton,
Watt & Co. was formed in 1774, and Watt’s success was thenceforward
Roebuck had to give in, there is no doubt that Watt was so much
to him at the beginning that, without his aid and encouragement,
he would never have gone on. Robinson says, “I remember Mrs. Roebuck
remarking one evening, C Jamie is a queer lad, and
without the doctor his invention would have been lost, but Dr.
Roebuck won’t let it perish.’”
with Kinneil and Bo’ness must have lasted a number of years. There
are many stories concerning his engines, probably mostly experimental,
which were in use at the local pits. These, no doubt, were in
operation, and attained a considerable degree of success before
he removed to Birmingham, but too late to be of any practical
assistance to his partner Roebuck. Of the engine at Taylor’s pit
the workmen could only say that it was the fastest one they ever
saw. From its size, and owing to its being placed in a small timber-house,
the colliers called it the “box bed.” The one at the Temple pit
was known as Watt’s spinning wheel. The cylinder of his engine
at the Schoolyard pit lay there for many years. It was in the
end purchased by Bo’ness Gas Company, in whose possession it now
is. The outhouse at Kinneil in which Watt constructed his first
engine and conducted his many experiments still remains, but it
is in a dilapidated condition. Undoubtedly Watt’s mental endowments
were great, but he was called upon to suffer disappointment after
disappointment and bitter reverses of fortune. His courage, force
of character, and mechanical genius ultimately carried him towards
complete success, so that he retired with a handsome fortune.
Stewart (b. 1753, d. 1828)
one of Scotland’s
most famous philosophers Dugald Stewart retired to Kinneil Palace,
Bo’ ness in 1809, at the invitation of his friend the Duke of Hamilton.
He resided at Kinneil, until his death, while visiting a friend
in Edinburgh on 11th June 1828. As such his family were
the last occupants of Kinneil Palace. Born in the precincts of Edinburgh
University where his father, the Professor of Mathematics resided,
Dugald first studied at Edinburgh, but was attracted to Glasgow
University to study under the famous Professor, Thomas Reid. He
succeeded to his father's chair at the age of 22 in 1775, although
due to illness he had already been working as his fathers substitute
for about two years. He also undertook the work of Professor Adam
Ferguson, who held the Chair of Moral Philosophy, when Professor
Ferguson made his visit to America. In the year of his father’s
death, 1785, he officially exchanged Chairs with Ferguson and was
Professor of Moral Philosophy at Edinburgh until his retirement
in 1810. A prolific author; his major work is Elements of the Philosophy
of the Human Mind. From Kinneil he dated his Philosophical Essays 1810,
1813, 1821, 1826 and 1828, while living at Kinneil. A large monument
on Calton Hill, Edinburgh, attests to his fame at the time of his
is by: Thomas James Salmon
(b. 1753, d. 1828), PROFESSOR OF MORAL
PHILOSOPHY IN THE EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY
After relinquishing the duties of his Chair in
1809 this eminent Scotsman retired to Kinneil House, which his friend
the Duke of Hamilton had placed at his disposal. Here he spent the
twenty remaining years of his life in philosophical study. From Kinneil
he dated his Philosophical Essays, in 1810, the second volume
of the Elements, in 1813; the first part of the Dissertation, in
1821, and the second part in 1826; and, finally, in 1828, the Philosophy o/ the
Active and Moral Powers, a work which he completed a few weeks
before the close of his life.
Stewart was born in the precincts of Edinburgh University, where
father, the Professor of Mathematics, resided. He studied at the
there, but after a time was attracted to Glasgow University,
like a good many others, by the fame of Professor Reid, who occupied
the Chair of Moral Philosophy. At the age of nineteen he was
by the Senatus as his father’s substitute during the latter’s
illness, and returned to Edinburgh. Two years later he was appointed
assistant and successor. With three days’ preparation he, in 1778,
undertook the work of the Chair of Moral Philosophy when Adam
Ferguson made his visit to America. In 1785, the year of his father’s
death, he exchanged Chairs with Ferguson. It was a happy exchange
for Stewart. He was so versatile that he could, at a moment’s
notice, occupy any Chair in the University, said there is no doubt
that as Professor of Mathematics he discharged the duties with
distinction. But his reading, his studies, and the natural bent
of his mind peculiarly fitted him to be the popular exponent of
Dr. Reid’s commonsense philosophy. His fame became so great that
he drew young men of family and fortune to attend his classes.
He was in the habit of boarding students, and it has been said
that noblemen did not grudge £400 for the privilege of having
their sons admitted to Professor Stewart’s charming home. Among
those who attended his class were the young men who afterwards
became Lord Palmerston, Lord John Russell, Lord Brougham, Lord
Cockburn, and Lord Jeffrey.
Cockburn has left us some very vivid and sympathetic recollections
as a lecturer, and of the influence he exercised over his students.
Entrance to Dugald Stewart’s class was, he says, the great era
in the progress of young men a minds. To him his lectures were
like the opening of the heavens, lie felt that he had a soul;
and the professor’s noble views, unfolded in glorious sentences,
elevated him into a higher world. Stewart, ho affirms, was one
of the greatest of didactic orators, and had he lived in ancient
times his memory would have descended to us as that of one of
the finest of the old eloquent sages. Flourishing, however,
in an age which required all the dignity of morals to counteract
the tendencies of physical pursuits and political convulsions,
he had exalted the character of his country and of his generation.
Without genius or even originality of talent, his intellectual
character was marked by calm thought and great soundness. His
training in mathematics may have corrected the reasoning, but
it never chilled the warmth of his moral demonstrations.
were exalted by an unimpeachable personal character, devotion
to the science he taught, an exquisite taste, an imagination
imbued with poetry and oratory; liberality of opinion, and the
morality. His retiral made a deep and melancholy impression
on his students and on all those interested in the welfare of
his earlier years Mr. Stewart had resided at Catrine House.
the country-house of his maternal grandfather, and there he
met and entertained the poet Burns. This friendship was renewed
the poet’s visit to Edinburgh.
told us that Mr. Stewart’s time at Kinneil was almost exclusively
devoted to his literary labours. He, however, relieved these by
friendly intercourse, and by the calls of those strangers whom
the lustre of his name led to pay a passing visit to Kinneil.
Among his friends was Sir David Wilkie, the painter. He was always
in search of subjects for his pictures, and Mr. Stewart found
for him in an old f arm-house in the neighbourhood the cradle
chimney introduced into the “Penny Wedding.” . Other friendly
visitors at Kinneil included Lord Palmerston and Earl Russell.
A detailed account of the life and writings of his father, which
abounded in anecdotes and notices of the many distinguished men
with whom he was on terms of intimacy, was prepared by Mr. Stewart’s
son. Most unfortunately this memoir and the greater part of the
professor’s correspondence and journals were unwittingly destroyed
by the son in a fit of mental aberration brought on by sunstroke.
Little record, then, is left of his long and interesting occupancy
of Kinneil. In 1822 he was struck with paralysis. The attack affected
his power of utterance and deprived him of the use of his right
hand. Happily, it neither impaired any of the faculties of his
mind nor the characteristic vigour and activity of his understanding.
It, however, prevented him from using bile pen, and Mrs. Stewart
became his amanuensis. From a letter written by her to a friend
in 1824 we find that Mr. Stewart’s health was as good as they
could possibly hope after the severe attack three years previously,
and that he walked between two and three hours every day.
In 1828 Mr. and
Mrs. Stewart went to Edinburgh on a brief visit to their friend
Mrs. Lindsay, No. 5 Ainslie Place. Here Mr. Stewart was seized
with a fresh shock of paralysis, and died on 11th June. He was
buried in the Canongate Churchyard. A monument to his memo7, erected
by his friends and admirers, stands upon the Calton Hill.
Stewart was twice married. His lint wife was Helen, daughter
of Neil Bannatyne,
Glasgow, and the marriage took place in 1783, after a long courtship.
She died in 1787, leaving an only child, Matthew, on whom his
father centred all his affections. He in time entered the Army,
and rose to distinction. The professor’s second wife was Helen
d’Arcy Cranstoun, third daughter of the Hon. George Cranstoun,
youngest son of William, fifth Lord Cranstoun. This marriage
took place in 1790. Mrs. Stewart, we are told,12 was
a lady of high accomplishments and fascinating manner—uniting with vivacity
and humour depth and tenderness of feeling. She sympathised warmly
with the tastes and pursuits of her husband, and so great was
his regard for her judgment and taste that he was in the habit
of submitting to her criticism whatever he wrote. Mrs. Stewart
also held a high place among the writers of Scottish song. She
died in 1838. There were two children of this marriage—a son,
George, a youth of great promise, whose death, in 1809, occasioned
the deepest affliction to his parents, and led to Mr. Stewart’s
retirement from professorial duty—and a daughter, Maria d’Arcy,
who survived her father and mother, and died in 1846. Miss Stewart
was endeared to a very extensive circle of friends by the charms
of a mind of great vigour and rich culture, manners the most
fascinating, and a heart full of warmth, tenderness, and affection.
and Miss Stewart were the last occupants of Kinneil House, and
after the professor’s death was much regretted by every inhabitant
of the parish. The active benevolence of the family was extensive,
and was long and gratefully remembered.
Potter (b. 1756, d. ? )
Following is by: Thomas James
one of the privatelv enclosed burial-places alongside the
east wall of the lower churchyard lie the mortal remains of Donald
Potter, captain of the Royal Navy. This is almost all that can
be gathered of this worthy, for the lettering on the memorial
tablet is so eaten away as to be indecipherable. On the top of
the stone there is still to be seen a splintered cannon ball hooped
with iron. Beneath are carved a crown and an anchor.
Potter was a native of the parish of Livingstone, in this county.
His father was James Potter, and his mother Katherine Mitchell. At
an early age he joined the Royal Navy, and by good conduct, gallant
deeds, and long and efficient service rose to an important position.
He specially~ distinguished himself under Admiral Howe in his crushing
defeat of the~ French fleet off Brest on the 1st of June, 1794. In
October, 1809, Potter received a commission as lieutenant of His Majesty’s
ship the “Bellona,” and in February, 1811, was appointed to the same
position on board the “Princess.” Much to his regret he had to retire
about 1814, when he settled in Borrowstounness, where he had some
relatives. Upon the mantelpiece of his sitting-room he kept an interesting
relic of the famous battle in the shape of a cannon ball. On every
recurrence of “the glorious first of June” he had the ball gaily decorated
with ribbons, and, dressing himself in his full naval uniform, paraded
the town. Thus arrayed he would call at various inns to drink to the
memory of his old admiral and success to the British Navy. In 1829—some
years before his death—the date of which is not now ascertainable—he
appears to have purchased his burial-place, erected his headstone,
and left instructions for the fixing of his much-prized curio upon
it after his death. The following year—November, 1830—he was appointed
to the rank and title of a commander in His Majesty’s Fleet (retired).
He was then seventy-four, and from all accounts lived for some years
William Thomson, of Upper Kinneil, was one of the captain’s intimate friends. To
Mr. Thomson he left the portrait (a photograph of which we reproduce)
and his sword and pistols. Mr. William Miller received other relies
from a grand-nephew of Potter’s many years ago. Among these
are a miniature of the captain painted on ivory, and his three
two of which bear the signature of Lord Palmerston.
Cadell (b. 1737 d. 1819)
of two sons William was one of the original partners in the Carron
Company and at the
age of 23 its first manager. In 1770 William and his brother John
took a lease on the Grange Coalfield & Salt Works from William
Belchier. They also leased Pitfirrane and other local coalfields
and as well as large ironworks at Cramond, which were managed as
the Grange Coal Company. In 1788 they were able to become joint
owners when the proprietor (William Belchier) had to sell grange
as part of his bankrupt estate. They now began to develop the coalfield
in earnest and sunk moat pits 1, 2 and 3 before going on to sink
4 and 5 on the shore where coal hadn’t previously been mined. In
order to ship the coal successfully they also practically re-built
Eighteenth Principal of Edinburgh University (b.
1761, d. 1840)
is by: Thomas James Salmon
distinguished divine was born in 1761 in a now-demolished house
the holding of Bowes, in the hollow to the west of Inveravon
farm-house, in the Parish of Borrowstounness. His father, James
a considerable proprietor in the county of Stirling, at that
time rented this farm from the Duke of Hamilton. Young Baird received
the rudiments of his education at the Pariah School of Borrowstounness.
Upon his father removing to the property of Manuel the boy was
sent to the Grammar School at Linlithgow, It has been said of
him that as a schoolboy be was more plodding, persevering, and
well-mannered than brilliant. In his thirteenth year he was
as a student in Humanity at Edinburgh University. There he speedily
evoked favourable notice because of his devotion to his classwork
and the progress which he made. In 1793 he succeeded Principal
Robertson in the Principalship at the early age of thirty-three.
Baird had married the eldest daughter of Lord Provost Elder,
who had paramount influence in the Council, and exercised it for
election of his youthful and untried son-in-law. We believe
it used to be jocularly said that his chief claim to the Principalship
was as “Husband” of the Lord Provost’s daughter. Nevertheless
the appointment turned out well, although lie was at a distinct
disadvantage in succeeding a man of high literary fame like
Principal Robertson. Baird held the Principalship for the long
forty-seven years, maw the students increase from 1000 to 2000,
new University building. erected, the professoriate augmented,
and great developments in other ways. He lived through many
long strifes and litigation., and died leaving the Senatus still
war. He was one of the ministers of the High Church of Edinburgh.
But Baird did most
excellent work, and made a lasting name for himself
outside the University. Towards the close of his life he threw
his whole soul into a scheme for the education of the poor in
the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. He submitted his proposals
to the General Assembly in May, .1824, advancing them with great
ability and earnestness. Next year the Assembly gave its sanction
to the scheme, and it was launched most auspiciously. So intense
was his interest in this work that in his sixty-seventh year,
although in enfeebled health, he traversed the entire Highlands
of Argyll, the west of Inverness, and Ross, and the Western
Islands from Lewis to Kintyre. The following year he visited
Highlands and the Orkneys and Shetlands. Through his influence
Dr. Andrew Bell, of Madras, bequeathed £5000 for education in
the Highlands of Scotland. In 1832 the thanks of the General
Assembly were conveyed to him by the illustrious Dr. Chalmers,
the zenith of his oratorical powers. He died at his family property
at Manuel, and is buried in Muiravonside Churchyard.
Sir George Johnstone Hope KCB
(b. 1767, d. 1818)
is by: Thomas James Salmon
ADMIRAL SIR GEORGE HOPE, K.C.B. (b. 1767,
We have elsewhere
dealt with the Hope family in connection with their ownership
of Carriden estate. The notable careers of the two admirals, however,
claim some mention.
George was the eldest son by the third marriage of the Hon.
Vere, and fifth child of his father, who was the second son
of the first Earl of Hopetoun. He entered the Navy at the age
fifteen, and after passing through the usual gradations attained
the rank of captain in 1793, and that of rear-admiral in 1811.
During the interval he had commanded successively the “Romulus,” “Alcmene,” and “Leda” frigates,
and the “ Majestic,” “Theseus,” and “Defence,” seventy-fours.
At the battle of Trafalgar he was present in the latter vessel.
He served as captain of the Baltic fleet from 1808 to 1811.
In 1812 he went to the Admiralty, and the following year held
chief command in the Baltic. In the end of the same year he
returned to the Admiralty, where he remained as confidential
the First Lord till his death on 2nd May, 1818.
He was a very distinguished
officer, and highly appreciated in the service for his exemplary
discipline, his decision, promptitude, and bravery, and his veneration
Bell (b. 1767, d. 1830)
The "Comet" (one
of the first practical steam powered boat), was launched
on the Clyde, designed by Henry Bell (b. 1767 d. 1830) who,
born at Torphichen Mill and a native of Torphichen, learnt his
trade in Bo'ness.
to work as a builder in Helensburgh and there his wife ran the
newly founded public baths and kept an inn. He crossed over to
Port Glasgow to persuade John Wood & Co to build him a ship
to be powered by his steam engine. He called the vessel the Comet probably
because astronomers at the time were excited by one then visible
and it was successfully launched on the Clyde on 12/8/1812. It
regularly sailed between Greenock and Glasgow.
came to Bo'ness from the Clyde via the Forth and Clyde Canal
in 1813 for an overhaul
to be carried out by Henry's old employers, Shaw & Hart.
is by: Thomas James Salmon
BELL (b. 1767, d. 1830).
the ruins of Torphichen Old Mill, on the banks of the river
Avon, about six
miles from Bo’ness, there was unveiled, on a blustery afternoon
in November, 1911, a tablet bearing the following Inscription:-
of Steamship Navigation in Europe.
in the Old Mill House near this spot, 1767 AD.
at Helensburgh, 1830 A.D.
tablet, which is of Aberdeen granite, is placed in the centre
of the old gable,
the only remaining part of the original structure. It bears a
representation of the “Comet,” showing how the funnel of the ship
was also used as a mast.
worthy son of Linlithgowshire had an interesting connection
with our seaport.
For many years shipbuilding was extensively carried on at Bo’ness.
A great many of the vessels were built for Greenock merchants
for the West India trade. The business was owned by Messrs. Shaw & Hart,
and with them Henry Bell, when about nineteen years of age, found
employment. It is said that when here his attention was directed
for the first time towards the idea of the propulsion of ships
by steam. His connection with Bo’ ness extended over a period
of two years, after which he settled in Glasgow. For a number
of years pressure of business kept him from pursuing his idea
of propelling ships by steam. At length he designed, engined,
and launched the “Comet” on the Clyde in 1812. The little vessel
was herself in Bo’ ness in 1813, and the event was one indelibly
imprinted on the memories of that generation. She probably came
down from the canal at Grangemouth, and when first seen was thought
to be on. fire.
it seems, had sent her round to the yard of his old masters
to be overhauled.
When she resumed her sailings several local gentlemen took advantage
of the first trip by steamboat from Bo’ ness to Leith. Her speed
was six miles an hour, and the single fare 7s. 6d.
The Bell family
have been well known in and intimately identified with the Linlithgow
district for many centuries. Some of the older members were burgesses
of the burgh, and many of them were engaged in the millwright
industry in the district. They were also tenants of Torphichen
Mill, Carribber Mill. and Kinneil Mill. Another family of Bells
were owners of Avontown, and were connected at different times
with the ministerial and 1egal professions, one of them having
been town-clerk of Linlithgow.
was purchased by Mr Robert Hughes it in the early 19th Century,
he changed the upper part of it into an observatory, purchasing
a six-inch telescope for £1,000, on his death this was sold to Piazza
Smith, the Astronomer Royal. Unable to install the telescope himself
Hughes hired an English Astronomer Mr Clark to install it for him.
Clark was originally to stay in the tower for 6 months, but stayed
28 years. Hughes also built the "Secret Factory" at
the bottom of Links Braes where Vitriol (Sulphuric Acid) and Iodine
extracted from seaweed was manufactured. It was called the secret
factory because the processes involved in extracting iodine and
making sulphuric acid were closely guarded secrets.
Anderson (b. 1794, d. 1870)
and Banker (b.1794 d.14th April 1870), "the King
of Bo'ness" was born at Bo'ness in 1794, the only son of
John Anderson (teacher) and Jean Paterson, he had a sister Margaret
who was a Cloth Merchant and Postmistress. He was probably Bo'ness's
most successful businessman. Interested in education he erected
the Anderson Academy. He was buried beside his father, mother
and sister in the lower churchyard on the Wynd, but his trustees
erected a monument to him and his aforementioned family at the entrance
to the new cemetery, which was unveiled on 24th December
is by: Thomas James Salmon
ANDERSON (b. 1794, d. 1870)
Anderson was known in his day and generation as “the King of Bo’ ness,” and
his name has been perpetuated in the Anderson Trust, the Anderson
Academy, and the Anderson Buildings, lie was the only eon of John
Anderson, teacher, Bo’ ness, and of Jean Paterson, his spouse,
and was born and lived all his days in the seaport. Possessing
shrewd business capacity, he in time became merchant, shipowner,
and, later in life, agent for the Royal Bank of Scotland. He conducted
his businesses with ability and success, and rose to considerable
influence in the place. In addition, he was connected officially
for many years with the local friendly societies, and devised
many schemes for their improvement. Mr. Anderson was a man of
strong will and tenacity of purpose, and left his mark on every
project with which he was associated.
fully alive to business possibilities, lie, to meet the increase
in the population
which followed the establishment of Kinneil Furnaces, converted
his extensive cellarages in Potter’s Close (now demolished) into
dwelling-houses. The consequent growth of the town at this time,
coupled with a renewal of the Greenland whale-fishing, led to
a great period of prosperity, in which he, as its principal merchant,
almost enjoyed a monopoly. He owned the whalers “Success,” “Alfred,” and “Jean,” and
had a large share in the boiling-house at the top of the Wynd.
On the formation of Bo’ness Gas Company, in 1842, he was appointed
its first chairman. To use a common phrase, Mr. Anderson was very
lucky. He did not, however, concentrate all his powers upon self-aggrandisement.
In him the poor of the town had a good friend during his lifetime,
and by his will lie provided pensions to deserving persons. Interested
all his life in education, he advanced its cause by erecting
and endowing the Academy which bears his name. The foundation-stone
of this building was made the occasion of a great Masonic demonstration
on the 12th of June 1869. Another function in which, a decade
before, he played a prominent part was the visit of the eleventh
Duke of Hamilton and his wife, Princes. Marie of Baden. They were
received in great style by Mr. Anderson, and entertained to cake
and wine on board the Greenland ship. Their Graces afterward proceeded
to the Town House, and there gave a handsome donation towards
the erection of the Clock Tower.
Anderson died on 14th April, 1870, and was buried beside his
and sister Margaret in the lower churchyard at the Wynd. This
burial-place is covered by a large, flat stone bearing some appreciative
words concerning his mother and sister. The former is described
as “active, cheerful, and constantly occupied,” and as having “sought
pleasure nowhere and found happiness and content everywhere.” Of
the latter he says, “Active in her habit, kindly in her disposition,
she was a sister highly to be prized.”
years ago Mr. Anderson’s trustees, who had been instructed to
renew and keep the family tombstones in order, resolved to erect
a new monument
to his memory in the cemetery, as the lower churchyard was now
practically abandoned. So, upon Saturday, 24th December, 1904,
Mr. William Thomson of Seamore, one of the original trustees,
performed the ceremony of unveiling a handsome granite block,
suitably inscribed, which stands near the main entrance to the
we reproduce a somewhat humorous, but, we believe, quite accurate
and character sketch of Mr. Anderson, which is prefixed to a presentation
volume of the poetical works of Robert Burns (London, 1828), in
the possession of Masonic Lodge Douglas. It refers to Mr. Anderson’s
initiation into Lodge No. 11. Ancient Brazen, Linlithgow, which
apparently met at Bo’ness for the purpose. The volume was presented
by Mr. Anderson, and, either out of compliment to him or at his
own desire (but, in either event, with his knowledge and consent),
the chronicle we refer to was prefixed.
Here is what the
scribe has written -
And in the days of the Kings called George and William and of
Queen Victoria, mighty Sovereigns of Scotland, there dwelt in
the ancient town of Bo’ness a virtuous man called John, of the
tribe of Anderson.
Now, the genealogy of this Jolm of Bo’ness is as follows:- There
was a pious man called John the Preacher, of this tribe of Anderson,
who took unto himself Agnes, the daughter of Bryson. (This is
evidently his grandfather, who was a Burgher minister at Elsrickle,
And she bore him a son, John, who waxed strong in knowledge,
and in process of time taught the people many things out of
the law and the prophets. (This was his father.)
And John, the teacher, took unto himself an excellent wife,
called Jane, of the tribe of Paterson, whose ancient progenitors
were mighty rulers in Italy in the latter days of the Caesars
and the Apostles, and hence is derived their Roman name of ‘Pater’ and ‘filius’ —father-son,
And this daughter of the tribe of Pater bore unto the teacher,
John of Bo’ness. and also Agne., who married Robert.
of the tribe of White, who is a dealer in things that are hard
in the royal city of London, and Margaret, a fair maiden of
good understanding. and much esteemed and respected by all who
And John of Bo’ness is a man that deals in all kinds of merchandise.
He ‘takes heed to his ways,’ as reminded by the wise men of
old and the prophets, therefore he has gold and silver end menservants
and maidservant., and also divers ships that go far off for
riches, even unto the borders of the Holy Land. Moreover, this
merchant was much respected for his wisdom and for his upright
ways. Wherefore he was made a ruler among the people, who bowed
down their heads before him when he sat in the judgment seat;
and his good name went abroad, so that there was none like unto
him in 13o’nesa for skill in shipping."
chronicle then concludes by recording Mr. Anderson’s initiation
on the 14th of September, 1849.
Sir James Hope KCB (b. 1808, d. 1881)
Sir James Hope was born at Carriden House (b.1808 d.1881). His
father, who died when James was only 10, was Admiral Sir George
Hope who commanded the H.M.S. Defence at the Battle of Trafalgar
and was Commander-in-Chief of the British Baltic Fleet during the
Napoleonic Wars. Sir George was the second son of the first Earl
of Hopetoun. James joined the Navy when 15 and by 1838 had reached
the rank of Captain. When retired he founded a model village at
is by: Thomas James Salmon
SIR JAMES HOPE, K.C.B. (b. 1808, d. 1881).
James Hope was
a child of ten when his father, Admiral Sir George, died.
His youth therefore was spent under the direction of his mother
and of his father’s trustees. Anxious to follow in his father’s
footsteps, he entered the Navy, and had an equally distinguished
career. He has been described by one who served under him abroad
as a brave gentleman and a good-hearted soul, and this is borne
out by all who knew him in this neighbourhood. When in command
of the “Firebrand” he opened the passage of the Parana, in the
River Plate by cutting the chain at Obligado in 1845. He was Commander-in-Chief
in China, and brought about the capture of Peking. On two occasions
he was seriously wounded. The first was during the attack on the
Peiho forts in 1859. He was directing operations from the budge
of the Plover” when a shell struck the funnel chainstay. A fragment
glanced off, and, striking Hope, became deeply embedded in the
muscles of his thigh. This entirely disabled him for four months.
His recovery was very slow, and he was lame ever afterwards. The
ship’s surgeon was able, after some trouble, to extract the splinter;
and a photograph of it is preserved, with a note giving full particulars
of the occurrence. The second occasion was near Taeping. Hope,
because of his disabled condition, was directing movements from
a sedan chair, and was in consultation with the French Admiral.
A shell from the guns of the enemy struck the latter under the
chin and decapitated him. Hope himself was violently thrown from
his seat, and his old wound reopened. He was gallantly rescued
by the late Tom Grant, of Bo’ ness, who was all through this campaign
with the Admiral. In later years his old chief succeeded in getting
Grant a pension, although he had scarcely completed his twenty-one
late Tom Thomson, of Carriden, another old naval man, was with
Hope while on the “Majestic” when
she was with the fleet in the Baltic under Sir Charles Napier.
Hope was an out-and-out Scot, and in his younger days agitated
for the introduction into the Navy of a Scotch uniform, especially
the Balmoral bonnet. The experiment was tried, but given up as
took great interest in his men on or off duty, and arranged
many private theatricals
on the main deck for their amusement, taking a special delight
in the presentation of “Rob Roy” and other Scottish pieces. Thomson
spoke highly of his discipline and the thoroughness with which
he instructed and drilled his men.
the Pekin Treaty, in 1862, Admiral Hope was engaged as an adviser
Admiralty. He afterwards resigned his command, and went into retirement.
For some time he lived in London, and afterwards settled at Carriden.
In conjunction with Lady Hope he associated himself in his later
years with many religious and philanthropic movements in the district.
He bought up some of the old properties in the Muirhouses, and
remodelled and rebuilt the village, including the old school and
schoolhouse. He was twice married, but had no family. The Admiral
died in Carriden House, and was buried in the northwest corner
of the churchyard at Cuffabouts. A cable from one of his old ships
surrounds the grave. His tombstone bears the inscription, “Sir
James Hope, G.C.B., Grand Commander of the Bath, Admiral of the
Fleet. Born 8th March 1808; died 8th June, 1881.”
The late Sir John
Lees, private secretary to the Marquis of Townshend when Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland, and who afterwards filled the office of
Secretary to the Post Office in Dublin, was in his youth brought
up, Mr. Fleming says, in Carriden parish. He was eminently successful
in life, and afforded a memorable example of the distinguished
place in society to which the careful cultivation and judicious
application of superior talents may raise their possessor. He
was created a baronet on the 21st June, 1804.
Burton Stephens (b. 1835 d. 1902)
The Following is by: Thomas
BRUNTON STEPHENS (b. 1835, d. 1902)
Bo’ness belongs the honour of being the birthplace of James
Brunton Stephens, the poet of the Australian Commonwealth.
His father was John Stephens, who filled the office of parochial
schoolmaster of Borrowstounness from 1808 to 1845 with much
dignity and ability. The school and schoolhouse were then situated
in what is now known as George Place. James was born in August,
1835. His early education was received from his father, and
among his schoolmates were John Marshall and John Blair, who
became well-known doctors, the first in Crieff, and the latter
in Melbourne, Australia. On completing his school education
he proceeded to Edinburgh University. In all his classes he
secured an honourable place, but abandoned his course witbout
taking a degree. He was tempted away from the mere diploma by
an offer to become a travelling tutor, and with the son of a
wealthy gentlemarn be travelled for three years to Paris, Italy,
Egypt, Turkey, Asia Minor, Palestine, and Sicily. On returning
to Scotland be became an assistant master in Greenock Academy.
In 1866, his health having given way, he was advised to emigrate
to Australia. Arriving in Queensland, he obtained a tutorship
in an up-country station, arid spent several years in learning
the sports and occupations of the bush. During this time he
wrote “Convict Once,” his best poem, and later “The Godolphin
Arabian,” a humorous and racy account of the sire of modern
thoroughbreds. In 1874 Mr. Stephens received an appointment
as a teacher under the Department of Public Instruction in Brisbane.
Here he began to contribute to the local Press, and in 1876
won a prize of £100 offered by the Quee#~1anier for the best
novelette. At this period he married and settled in one of the
Brisbane suburbs. In 1880 he published a volume of miscellaneous
poems containing many~ humorous pieces that strongly appealed
to the public. Mr. Stephens latterly filled the position of
Chief Clerk in the Colonial Secretary’s Office at Brisbane,
and was greatly esteemed for his geniality and wit. Ho was very
Australian in the selection of his themes, his inspiration being
found in his immediate surroundings. Among the humorous poets
of Australia he held a first place, but, like Hood, he could
be serious on occasion. In this vein he was equally successful.
He was keenly alive to the importance of uniting all the Australian
States, and in 1871 his poem, “The Dominion of Australia,” did
a great deal to stimulate flagging interest in federation. On
the 1st of January, 1901, he published a poem in the Argus entitled “Fulfilment,” which
was dedicated, by special permission, to Her Majesty
In June of the
following year Mr. Stephens died in his sixty-seventh year, and
was survived by his widow, a son, and four daughters.
Stewart is principally remembered in the town as the man who founded
the Bo’ ness Children’s Fair in 1897, but his major contribution
to the town is most definitely the formation of the Pit Prop Industry,
which for over half a century had a profound effect on the towns
trade and industry.
From about 1840
the stoop and room method of mining which left pillars of coal
to hold up the mine roof was replaced with the longwall system.
This system replaced the pillars of coal with timber props (pit
props) which meant a much greater yield of coal from the seams.
The drawback was that before each shift each miner had to cut
his own props from imported tree trunks which left a considerable
amount of waste wood: a practice that may have been deliberate
since the miners were allowed to keep the waste as firewood. Grange
Colliery cashier and future Bo'ness Provost George Cadell Stewart
noticed this waste and went into partnership with James Love,
a Glasgow business man, setting up the first pitwood yard in Bo'ness
on reclaimed foreshore. They imported the props in a variety of
lengths and diameters from Scandinavia and other Baltic countries.
Other companies soon followed and this led to the new dock being
built by the North British Railway Company, to be completed in
1881. In its hay day there were 120 acres of storage yards served
by ten miles of railway sidings employing about 1,000 people.
Eventually the yards were fitted with cutting equipment capable
of producing vast quantities of mining timber at short notice.
By 1935 more than 140,000 tons of pit props were imported per
aforementioned the Bo'ness
Children's Fair was founded by one of the towns first Provosts
George Cadell Stewart, who was Provost of the Burgh from 1894
to 1904. Modelled on Lanark's Lanimer Day, and probably greatly
encouraged by Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Provost Cadell
for the first time introduce the children of the town into the
festivities replacing the hose racing with a programme of revels
more suitable for children. Grace Strachan, from Anderson Academy,
was the first of many Bo'ness Fair "Queens" to chosen
by their fellow pupils. Unfortunately due to a dispute about
the order of precedence the Newtown miners boycotted the Children's
Fair taking no part in the proceedings. In fact the Newtown
Miners carried on the old style miners march up until the beginning
Note: I would like to hear from any reader who could contribute
information on the above named character.
Moubray Cadell (b. 1860, d. 1934)
of “The Story of the Forth” (1913), Scientist Henry Cadell of
the Grange in West Lothian was a noted geologist and geographer.
He was Chairman of Council of the Royal Scottish Geographical
Society from 1919 to 1924 and a Vice-President from 1927 until
his death. He published extensively on the geology of Scotland,
especially the oil-shale fields of the Lothians, and travelled
extensively overseas. In 1899 he travelled the length of the Irrawaddy
salmon was a Bo’ness Solicitor and Clerk to the Public Library
Committee. As an Author he wrote “BORROWESTOUNESS AND DISTRICT
being Historical Sketches of Kinneil, Carriden, and Bo’ness”.
Without his work we would know very much less about Bo’ness and
it’s history. He has made a great contribution to the Bo’ness
Web Site, Other local historians and writers would have been at
a great loss to complete their works without the very extensive
foundation work done by Mr Salmon to whom the town and inhabitants
irrefutably owe their written and well documented heritage.
Note: I would like to hear from any reader who could contribute
information on the above named character.
David Robertson Duguid MBE
present I have no information about General Duguid, except that
he was probably
the highest-ranking Bo’nessian to serve in WW II.
Note: I would like to hear from any reader who could contribute
information on the above named character.
Harcus Strachan (b. 1889 d. 1982.)
Cross and Captain Strachan. Captain
Harcus Strachan had immigrated from Bo'ness to Canada by the
time WWI was declared and thus enlisted by joining the Fort
Garry, Canadian Cavalry. In the early years of the war he was
awarded the Military Cross for "conspicuous valour":
on a cold and snowy day, 27 March 1917, Lt. Harcus Strachan was
awarded a Military Cross for his actions at Somerville Wood.
It was for bravery
at the Battle of Cambria on the 20th November 1917
that Lt. Strachan received the Victoria Cross. Having taken command
of the regiment when his Commanding Officer was killed Lt. Strachan
killed seven of the enemy with his sword, destroyed an important
gun emplacement, cut communications and returned to his lines
Prior to winning
the V.C. Harcus Strachan was initiated into freemasonry at the
Douglas Lodge on 22nd January 1917.
It seems that Harcus
made the rank of Major by the end of WWI, but also saw service
in WWII where he had the rank of a Colonel.
Steele was the architect responsible for the design of the Hippodrome
Masonic Lodge. No. 11 South Street (Now S&J Studios) was designed
by Mathew Steele for John Paris. He is also famous for his joint
proposal with John Jeffrey to dam the Forth in the 1930’s.
Note: I would like to hear from any reader who could contribute
information on the above named character.
During the work
starved pre-war years of the early 1930's there was a proposal
put forward by John Jeffrey (a Bo'ness hotel owner) and Mathew
Steel to dam the Forth at Queensferry. Mathew Steel was the architect
responsible for the design of the Hippodrome Cinema, Masonic
Lodge and No. 11 South Street (Now S&J Studios) was designed
by Mathew Steel for John Paris.
the time this would have: - employed thousands of labourers;
given Bo'ness Harbour
a new lease of life, since shipping could leave and enter at any
time; encouraged shipbuilding at Grangemouth; created a semi-tidal
waterway in Britain, larger than Loch Lomond, and which could
rival any Swiss lake for amenities; produced hydro-electric power
for use in all Forth Valley towns; be used as a landing facility
for sea-planes which were being considered for commercial flights
at that time. Alas when war broke out all thoughts of this proposal
Note: I would like to hear from any reader who could contribute
information on the above named character.
Dalyell (b. 1932, d. )
Dalyell's have inhabited the Binns for over 300 years, Sir
Thomas Dalyell Baronet (Bt NS 1685) 10th Laird of
the Binns MP being the current inhabitant. Thomas Dalyell,
better known to us as Tam, was however born on 9th August
1932 as Thomas Loch. His father, Lt. Colonel Grodon Loch C.I.E
changed his name to Dalyell on 1st March 1938. Tam’s
succession to the Baronetcy was through his mother Eleanor Isabel
Dalyell (only child and heiress of Sir James Wilkie Dalyell
of the Binns, Baronet). By a special disposition the title
can descend through “heirs male and of tailyie” or more clearly
through the female line should there be no male heirs. This
is the third occasion in the history of the Dalyell Baronetcy
where this has happened. Tam was educated at Edinburgh Academy,
Eton and King’s College, Cambridge, before returning to train
as a teacher at Moray House Edinburgh. Before becoming a member
of Parliament in 1962 “Sir Tam” taught English at Bo’ness Academy
and was also Director of studies on the school ship “Duners”.
He was a West Lothian MP until 1983 when he became the MP for
Linlithgow, a position that he still holds and which makes him
one of the longest serving MP’s in the House of Commons.
fellow left-wing veteran MP Tony Benn, Tam Dalyell aged 66,
has earned a reputation as a dogged MP who has campaigned on
a variety of high-profile issues which have brought him into
conflict with his own party on numerous occasions.
have included the sinking of the Argentinian ship, the Belgrano,
by a British submarine during the Falklands conflict, the
Lockerbie bombing and the Kosovo bombings.
in Blair's side, “Old Etonian” Tam, has been at odds with
the government over three of the biggest issues that they
have faced since Tony Blair swept to power: namely, Iraq,
Kosovo and devolution.
was also the "inventor" in 1977 of the West Lothian
Question, named after his former constituency, which asks why,
even in the light of a Scottish Parliament, a full quota of
Scottish MPs at Westminster can still be allowed to vote on
purely English matters.
by: Ken Wright